Documentation, Mapping, and Indigenous Knowledge of the Stone Monuments and Archaeological Remains in Liyai Khullen Village in Manipur, India


  • Oinam Premchand Singh Jawaharlal Nehru University


This paper presents the result of a recent archaeological survey undertaken in Liyai Khullen village and surrounding areas settled by the Poumai Nagas in Manipur. The survey was conducted in an area of about 16 km² in the hill landscape to a) document the unreported archaeological remains and b) understand the indigenous knowledge of the residents. It documented 554 stone monuments and important features on the landscape, such as a renovated ancestral village gate and two sacred stone structures. Mapping these features on the hill landscape has revealed that most stone monuments are located in the habitation area, while a few are located near footpaths between the habitation area and terraced fields. Interviews with the residents who have witnessed and participated in the construction of stone monuments have shed crucial insights into the involved dynamics and knowledge about other archaeological remains, which will be helpful for in-depth future investigations.